What happened at the top
The International Forum in Glasgow, Scotland, started on 31 October and ended last Friday, 12 November. It was attended by delegates from nearly 200 countries: representatives of governments, NGOs, businesses, academia, indigenous peoples, clergy and other groups. Within two weeks, they had to decide how to protect the planet’s ecology in the coming years and discuss what commitments the politicians are ready to make.
The COP26 World Leaders Summit was held on 1 and 2 November. The event was attended by US President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, French President Emmanuel Macron, Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, as German Chancellor Angela Merkel and other politicians of high rank.
Among the most important global initiatives adopted at the Glasgow Climate Summit are three: the Declaration on Forests and Land Management, declaration reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030 e declaration on the introduction of advanced green technologies.
At the same time, Russia adhered only to the first of the three agreements – on the conservation of forests. The declaration on the reduction of methane emissions was not only supported by the Russian Federation, but also by China, Iran and India. These countries they are included in the top ten of the major emitters of this gas. At the same time, six other major sources of methane emissions – the United States, Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Mexico – signed the declaration.
Last minute softening of the formulation
The final draft of the agreement caused controversy among participating countries. As a result, the text of the document was approved one day late. At the last moment, changes were made to the draft agreement: a softer wording on coal and fossil fuels.
This was announced on the evening of November 13 by the president of COP26, a member of the British Cabinet of Ministers Alok Sharma.
“I apologize to all the delegates for how this process went and I deeply regret [по поводу изменений, внесенных в текст итогового заявления в последнюю минуту]… I understand the great disappointment, however, as you noted, it was vital to protect this package of documents. [от угрозы неутверждения]”, – he noted before approving the latest changes (quote from RIA Novosti).
The draft agreement concerned a complete and swiftest possible cessation of the use of coal. However, the phrase “phasing out” from coal in the document has been replaced by “phasing out” of its use. The adjustment was pushed by India, China and other coal-dependent countries, which are considered to be a major source of carbon dioxide emissions.
According to Indian Environment Minister Bupender Yadawa, developing countries cannot promise to abandon fossil fuels when development strategies and poverty reduction are the order of the day. in shape Fiinbi.ru.
The amendment did not satisfy the European countries, but India’s signature on the treaty is extremely important, as it ranks third in the world in terms of environmental pollution.
The coal energy deal allows countries to meet part of their climate commitments by buying quotas from other countries. In the adopted text, the countries pledge to intensify their efforts “to reduce the incessant consumption of energy from coal and eliminate inefficient subsidies to fossil fuels, targeting the poorest and most vulnerable, depending on national circumstances”.
Criticism of COP26 and its outcome
COP26 chairman, member of the British Cabinet of Ministers Alok Sharma, admitted that he was disappointed with the results of the summit, but still considers the agreement a “fragile victory”.
“I am disappointed with where we have come, but nevertheless we have concluded a historic agreement. I wish we could keep the original language. However, we have a position on coal, we have a wording on phasing out non-decaying coal and I think many will be happy that at least that has been achieved. ” quotes his words to Euronews.
A number of experts expressed skepticism about the Glazko conference even before it began and said they did not expect any breakthroughs from it. Also because the delegations of the largest international players – Russia and China – did not participate in the meeting. For this reason, the Russian and Chinese leaders have been criticized by Joe Biden.
Experts believe that the commitments made by the participants at the summit are insufficient to keep global warming within 1.5 degrees Celsius. Namely, this goal was stated six years ago in the Paris Agreement, the first results of which were summarized at COP26.
Swiss Environment Minister Simonetta Sommaruga called the results of the summit a scandal: “The repeated repetition of the phrase” 1.5 degrees Celsius “makes no sense if the agreement does not specify how to achieve this goal.
He said the COP26 summit will be remembered as a betrayal of developing countries because the language of the treaty is very vague and the proposed processes are opaque.
Criticism is also due to the fact that the United States, represented by President Joe Biden, did not present a clear program of action at the summit due to the fact that the American administration still fails to obtain full support in the Senate on climate issues.
UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres said he considered the agreements reached to be insufficient.
“The outcome of COP26 is a compromise that reflects interests, contradictions and the state of political will in today’s world. This is an important step, but it’s time to enter emergency mode “, – he wrote is on his Twitter page.
The response of the environmentalists
According to Jennifer Morgan, Executive Director of Greenpeace International, there has been no breakthrough at the top:
“I think the deal is toothless and weak. But this is a sign of the end of coal. So this is good, but it is in contrast to the present day. The 1.5 degree target remains, but takes a back seat. And I don’t think young people around the world will host another climate summit like this one ”. quotes also Euronews.
Swedish eco-activist Greta Thunberg also expressed her dissatisfaction with the outcome of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference.
“COP26 is over. Here is his summary: bla bla bla “- he wrote is on his Twitter page.
Earlier, Thunberg called for protests in Glasgow and said conference attendees were just pretending to be serious about climate change.
About this topic:
“Alcohol scholar. Hardcore tv junkie. Wannabe bacon enthusiast. Twitter fanatic. Subtly charming travel guru. Pop culture specialist.”